The first treatment for thyroid cancer in children involves the removal of all or part of the thyroid gland through surgery. This surgery is very safe in children. If the thyroid gland must be removed, thyroid hormone replacement will be necessary. This involves daily medication for the rest of a person’s life. For some children, radioactive Iodine may be necessary to destroy any remnants if surgery does not remove all of the cancer, or if there are any other areas of the body that have thyroid cancer cells. Radioactive iodine is a molecule of Iodine that has a very potent radioactive ability. The cancerous thyroid cells take in the radioactive iodine so that a very high dose of radiation is administered directly to the cancer cells.